HMRC Compliance Check – How It Works?

HMRC Compliance Check - How It Works
HMRC Compliance Check

Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC) conducts compliance checks to ensure that individuals and businesses in the UK are paying the correct amount of tax. These checks are part of HMRC’s strategy to tackle tax evasion and ensure that the tax system operates fairly for everyone. Understanding how these checks work can help you prepare and respond appropriately if you are selected.

Table of Contents

What is an HMRC Compliance Check?

An HMRC compliance check is an investigation conducted by HMRC to verify that tax returns and payments are accurate and complete. These checks can be triggered for various reasons, including random selection, discrepancies in tax returns, or information from third parties suggesting non-compliance. The goal is to ensure that all taxpayers are fulfilling their tax obligations according to the law.

What Triggers an HMRC Compliance Check?

HMRC compliance checks are usually started when a taxpayer’s returns contain errors or irregularities that raise concern. Inconsistencies in reported income or expenses compared to prior years or industry standards are among the most frequent triggers. HMRC could also do a more thorough investigation in response to noticeable differences in profits or odd spending claims.


HMRC employs a risk-based system to identify potential non-compliance. This system, known as HMRC Connect, analyzes vast amounts of data to spot unusual patterns or discrepancies that warrant further investigation. For instance, if a company’s margins or expenses do not align with industry benchmarks, or if there are sudden changes in financial figures without clear justification, these can be triggers for a compliance check.


Additionally, specific aspects of a tax return might be targeted in what is known as an aspect enquiry. This occurs when a particular area, such as VAT returns or PAYE records, appears suspicious or inconsistent. In some cases, random checks are also conducted to ensure overall compliance within the taxpayer population.

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What Trigger a Tax Investigation

Types of Compliance Checks

There are several types of compliance checks that HMRC might conduct:

  1. Full Enquiries: These are comprehensive investigations that cover all aspects of a taxpayer’s return. They are typically carried out when HMRC suspects significant underpayment or fraud.
  2. Aspect Enquiries: These focus on specific parts of a tax return where HMRC believes there may be errors or omissions.
  3. Random Checks: These are conducted randomly to ensure general compliance and deter non-compliance across the board.

The Compliance Check Process

The compliance check process generally follows these steps:

  1. Notification: HMRC will notify you in writing if you are selected for a compliance check. This letter will explain what is being checked and what information HMRC needs from you.
  2. Information Gathering: You will be asked to provide specific documents and information relevant to the check. This could include bank statements, invoices, receipts, and other financial records.
  3. Meetings and Inspections: In some cases, HMRC may request to meet with you or visit your business premises to gather further information and clarify any doubts.
  4. Review and Analysis: HMRC will review the information provided and analyze it to determine if your tax returns are accurate.
  5. Conclusion: HMRC will conclude the check by either accepting your tax returns as accurate or proposing adjustments. You will receive a closing letter detailing the findings and any additional tax owed or refunded.

Responding to a Compliance Check

If you receive a compliance check notification, it’s important to respond promptly and cooperatively. Here are some steps you can take:

  1. Seek Professional Advice: Consider consulting a tax advisor or accountant to help you navigate the process and ensure that you provide the correct information.
  2. Gather Documents: Collect all relevant documents and records requested by HMRC. Ensure that these are well-organized and complete.
  3. Communicate Clearly: Maintain clear and timely communication with HMRC. If you need more time to gather information or have any questions, let them know as soon as possible.
  4. Review Your Returns: Double-check your previous tax returns to understand what HMRC might be looking at and to identify any potential issues that need clarification.

How Long Does an HMRC Compliance Check Take?

The duration of an HMRC compliance check can vary widely, influenced by the complexity of the case and the responsiveness of the taxpayer. Straightforward checks, where the information is readily available and there are no significant discrepancies, are typically resolved within three months. These cases involve simple queries that can be addressed quickly with accurate and complete records.

On the other hand, more complicated cases—like those involving several years’ worth of tax returns or significant amounts of money—may require a lot more time. In these kinds of situations, thorough investigations and verifications could take several years. Since there is no hard deadline, the length of time will vary depending on the particulars of each case and how well all the required information has been processed and supplied. The procedure can be sped up if the taxpayer provides correct and timely responses.

After filing a Self-Assessment tax return, HMRC generally has 12 months to initiate a compliance check on any or all aspects of the return. While the likelihood of a compliance check being initiated decreases after this period, it can still occur under certain circumstances. HMRC may request specific information such as accounts, calculations, company tax returns, or PAYE records, typically giving a timescale of 40 days from the date of issue of the information notice. Failure to provide the requested information within the deadlines can result in a formal information notice, which may incur a fine of up to £300, and potentially £60 per day until compliance is achieved.

Potential Outcomes

The outcomes of an HMRC compliance check can vary depending on the findings of the investigation. If HMRC concludes that your tax returns are accurate, the check will be closed with no further action required. However, if discrepancies are found, HMRC may propose adjustments to your tax returns. This could result in additional tax being owed or, in some cases, a refund if it is determined that you have overpaid.

In instances where significant underpayment or deliberate evasion is discovered, HMRC may impose penalties and interest on the outstanding tax amount. The severity of these penalties will depend on the nature of the errors and whether they were deemed to be careless or intentional. It’s important to address any issues identified during the compliance check promptly to avoid further complications and potential legal action.

Appealing HMRC’s Decision

If you disagree with HMRC’s findings, you have the right to appeal. Here’s how you can go about it:

  1. Internal Review: Request an internal review by a different HMRC officer. This officer will reassess the findings and either uphold or amend the decision.
  2. Tax Tribunal: If you are still dissatisfied after the internal review, you can appeal to the First-tier Tax Tribunal. This independent body will hear your case and make a final decision.

Preventing Future Compliance Checks

While compliance checks can be stressful, there are steps you can take to minimize the likelihood of future checks:

  1. Maintain Accurate Records: Keep detailed and accurate records of all your financial transactions. This includes invoices, receipts, bank statements, and other relevant documents.
  2. Timely Filing and Payment: Ensure that you file your tax returns and pay any taxes owed on time. Late filing or payment can trigger further scrutiny.
  3. Seek Professional Help: Engage a tax advisor or accountant to assist with your tax affairs. They can help you stay compliant and avoid errors that might attract HMRC’s attention.
  4. Regular Reviews: Conduct regular reviews of your financial records and tax returns to identify and correct any discrepancies before HMRC does.


Understanding how HMRC compliance checks work can help you manage the process more effectively if you are selected. By maintaining accurate records, seeking professional advice, and responding promptly to HMRC’s requests, you can navigate the compliance check process with confidence. Remember, the goal of these checks is to ensure that everyone pays the right amount of tax, creating a fair and transparent tax system for all.

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